"Some argue the big advances in our impact on design and usability will come from better methods. Some argue they will come from earlier involvement in the development process. The biggest impact, however, will come as more and more companies realize the benefits of user-centered design and embrace it. Eric offers a practical road map to get there."—Arnie Lund, Director of Design and Usability, Microsoft Corporation
"This book is a great how-to manual for people who want to bring the benefits of improved usability to their companies. It's thorough yet still accessible for the smart businessperson. I've been working with user-centered design for almost 20 years and I found myself circling tips and tricks."—Harley Manning, Research Director, Forrester Research
"This book should be required reading for all executive champions of change. It does an excellent job in laying the foundation for incorporating usability engineering concepts and best practices into corporations. Business success in the new economy will greatly depend on instituting the changes in design methods and thinking that are so clearly and simply put forth in this very practical and useful book."—Ed Israelski, Program Manager—Human Factors, Abbott Laboratories
"For those of us who have evangelized usability for so many years, we finally have a book that offers meaningful insights that can only come from years of practical experience in the real world. Here is a wonderful guide for all who wish to make usability a 'way of life' for their companies."—Felica Selenko, Principal Technical Staff Member, AT&T
"Dr. Schaffer's mantra is that the main differentiator for companies of the future will be the ability to build practical, useful, usable, and satisfying applications and sites. This is a book that provides the road map necessary to allow your organization to achieve these goals." —Colin Hynes, Director of Site Usability, Staples, Inc.
"Eric's methodology helped RBC Royal Bank's online banking complete a new user interface, and provided a blueprint for making usable designs a routine part of our development process. The site became successful in making money, saving money, and increasing customer satisfaction—evidencing the effectiveness of his approach."—Carolyn Burke, Senior Manager, e-Commerce and Payments Strategy, RBC Royal Bank of Canada
"If you're tasked with bringing usability to a large organization, this book is for you (and your boss). Informed by years of case studies and consulting experience, Eric provides the long view, clearly describing what to expect, what to avoid, and how to succeed in establishing user-centered principles at your company."—Pat Malecek, User Experience Manager, AVP, CUA, A.G. Edwards & Sons, Inc.
"Usability issues are a key challenge for user-interface development of increasingly complex products and services. This book provides much-needed insights to help managers achieve their key objectives and to develop more successful solutions."—Aaron Marcus, President, Aaron Marcus and Associates
At one time, computer hardware was the key differentiator in information technology—what gave an organization its competitive edge. Then, as hardware prices fell, software took center stage. Today, software has become a broadly shared commodity, and a new differentiator has emerged—usability. Applications, including Web sites, are usable if they are practical, useful, easy to work with, and satisfying. Usability is now the factor likeliest to give an organization a distinct advantage.
Institutionalization of Usability shows how to make user-centered design and development a routine practice within an enterprise. Other excellent books explain precisely how to make software usable; this book builds on that foundation, and focuses instead on how to get usability recognized and incorporated into an organization's values and culture. Based on author Eric Schaffer's extensive experience, the book provides a solid methodology for institutionalizing usability, guiding readers step by step with practical advice on topics like organizational change, milestones, toolsets, infrastructure, and staffing requirements needed to achieve fully mature usability engineering.
Learn how to:
Whether you are an executive leading the institutionalization process, a manager supporting the transition, or an engineer working on usability issues, Institutionalization of Usability will help you to build usability into your software practices.
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Eric Schaffer, Ph.d., is the founder and CEO of Human Factors International, Inc., the world's largest company specializing in usability engineering. For more than twenty-five years, Eric has helped Fortune 500 companies apply user-centered design in such industries as telecommunications, financial services, manufacturing, software development, and medical equipment. Previously, he worked on usability issues at AT&T and Bell Labs.
This book is a guide to making usability a routine practice within an enterprise, be it commercial or government. Every organization has special needs: There is no one simple approach that fits all organizations. What this book provides, however, is a solid methodology, not for usability engineering (that's been done before and exists in various forms), but for the part that is truly missing--the institutionalization of usability. This institutionalization methodology is not new. It is simply a synthesis of the best practices and insights from hundreds of companies in the forefront of this effort. This book will give you insights into the appropriate institutionalization activities, infrastructure, and staffing. It will give you tips on how to recognize quality, and how to time and sequence components. The combination of elements is unique for each organization, but this book can be a road map, a mine detector, and a shopping list for you.
There is a misconception that the institutionalization of usability will simply be a matter of doing more of what we have done in the past. A simple analogy will illustrate why this is a misconception. Imagine that we are back in pre-industrial times and that we have a small hut in the forest where we have made a primitive brick forge to produce swords. We create the swords by using a hand bellows and then hammering the metal against a rock. We find the swords to be very useful and realize we need one for everyone in our army. We need thousands of swords. Is our solution to build lots of little huts? Of course not. We need a factory.
Today, the usability engineering process is still being done in a hut. Usability engineers are typically thrown alone into a large organization and left unsupported. There is no established user-centric methodology or set of tools. Every questionnaire is reinvented from scratch. Every deliverable is conceived and crafted by hand. Then we wonder why user-centered design can seem inefficient! It should be no surprise if the results are not consistent, not repeatable, and not reliable.
Currently, good usability practitioners know how to make software usable. We have a billion dollars worth of research and 50 years of practice. But, the usability industry has not matured nearly as much as the software development industry. Usability professionals rarely complete a systematic and repeatable methodology. They rarely work with a complete toolset and set of standards. They are rarely formally trained to complete all the tasks in their area of responsibility. They rarely have comprehensive quality assurance. And perhaps of greatest concern, they are rarely integrated into the routine development process. We know how to make an application usable, but we don't generally know how to put these techniques into practice in a systematic way that is efficient and works well within an organization.
This is the next frontier in the usability field and it is also the focus of this book. This book provides insights into the deep changes necessary to put user-centered design to work routinely within your organization. This book also provides a guided series of activities and milestones that will chart your course to fully mature and institutionalized usability engineering.
This book is about how to create a usability "factory." It is about how to create a reliable and repeatable process. It is about how to ensure efficiency. Following this process means that usability efforts will have to be done differently than before. Just as a computer programmer would never suggest going back to the early days "in the garage," no usability expert should accept the lack of a systematic methodology and professional infrastructure. Usability practitioners of the future will look back with amusement at our current piecemeal approach. This book is a guide to this more mature usability engineering process.
It is time for us to get serious about the institutionalization of usability because usability has become extremely important. Usability is now the key differentiator in the information age. Imagine the CEO of a large insurance company standing before her stockholders and telling them there is bad news this year. The company has been vanquished by the competition . . . because the competition has better laptop computers. Seems like an unlikely excuse? That's because hardware is now a commodity. It takes serious work to create good hardware, but everyone has it, and it does not represent a differentiator between companies. You just buy adequate hardware.
Hardware was the first wave of the information age. In the 1980s, it was a challenge to get adequate hardware, and it was an important differentiator that could determine corporate success. But at the end of the 1980s, the software industry realized that "software sells the hardware," and good software became the differentiator. Companies who could create stable software with the right functionality won big. This was the second wave.
Now in the new millennium, software has become a commodity. Everyone can create a database. Everyone can get connectivity. Children can code in HTML. Software is no longer a differentiator. Software coding is being done with better and better power tools and being outsourced to countries with lower labor costs. We are now entering the third wave of the information age.
What is the remaining differentiator in this information age? It is the ability to build practical, useful, usable, and satisfying applications and web sites. Very few companies do this well, because this requires creating a full and integrated usability engineering capability. As you will see throughout this book, the journey to routine usability requires a serious effort and the path has many pitfalls.
The Organization of This Book
This book contains four major sections, or phases. The first phase, "Startup," covers the process of alerting the organization to the need to make usability a routine internal capability. It then outlines the steps toward finding an executive champion and consultant to support the initial process.
The "Setup" phase explores the essential core infrastructure of methods, templates, standards, and internal training, " Organization," the third phase, describes the need to properly staff the factory you have built. You will need a small, centralized, internal organization to support usability engineering. If you are a large organization, you will need usability practitioners reporting within your project teams. The Organization phase then ends by outlining the importance of applying your usability methods to a set of projects and discussing challenges that occur as resources are stretched (as often happens at this point).
The last phase, "Long-Term Operations," characterizes the established operation of the central usability group.
The Audience for This Book
This book enables leaders to bring modern usability principles into everyday practice. It is not an introduction to usability or a guide to good design. This book is for everyone who is working to integrate usability-engineering practices into their organizations.
If you are an executive or manager within an organization, then you will want to focus on the steps you can take to get institutionalization started. You will want to concentrate on a high-level strategy, and deciding on the staff and resources to fully implement the institutionalization process. Pay particular attention to the chapters on being an executive champion and creating a strategy. You are the one who must move your organization from piecemeal usability to a managed process.
If you are currently part of a usability team that is struggling to make usability routine, you may need to look at the process of institutionalization in a new light. Perhaps you are struggling because you can't do it alone. You may need to focus on finding an executive champion to give power to the effort.
If you are part of a large organization, all the steps in the institutionalization method will be critical, and you will likely have to involve many others along the way. If you are with a small or medium size organization, then you may be able to do much of this on your own. The steps will still be appropriate for you, even if they are scaled down.
No matter who you are, or how far along you are in the institutionalization process (even if it is at the beginning), if you are considering how to institutionalize usability in your company, this book is for you. If you have decided to proceed to build usability into your software design practices, this book is required reading. Whether you are an executive leading the process, a manager supporting the transition, or a staff member advising others and working on usability issues, this book will guide you to success.
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