The potential of Paranosema (Nosema) locustae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and its combination with Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for the control of locusts and grasshoppers in West Africa

 
9783867273695: The potential of Paranosema (Nosema) locustae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and its combination with Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for the control of locusts and grasshoppers in West Africa
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Agbeko Kodjo Tounou
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag 2007-09-19 (2007)
ISBN 10: 3867273693 ISBN 13: 9783867273695
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag 2007-09-19, 2007. Estado de conservación: New. Brand new book, sourced directly from publisher. Dispatch time is 24-48 hours from our warehouse. Book will be sent in robust, secure packaging to ensure it reaches you securely. Nº de ref. de la librería NU-LBR-01918071

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Agbeko Kodjo Tounou
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag (2007)
ISBN 10: 3867273693 ISBN 13: 9783867273695
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag, 2007. Estado de conservación: New. Nº de ref. de la librería L9783867273695

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Tounou, Agbeko Kodjo
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag. paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Nº de ref. de la librería 9783867273695

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Tounou, Agbeko Kodjo
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag (2007)
ISBN 10: 3867273693 ISBN 13: 9783867273695
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag, 2007. Paperback. Estado de conservación: Brand New. 8.27x5.79x0.35 inches. In Stock. Nº de ref. de la librería __3867273693

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Agbeko Kodjo Tounou
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag Sep 2007 (2007)
ISBN 10: 3867273693 ISBN 13: 9783867273695
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag Sep 2007, 2007. Taschenbuch. Estado de conservación: Neu. Neuware - Locusts and grasshoppers are the most treating agricultural pests that represent with drought the first reason of famine in Sahelian regions of Africa. Concern about environmental and toxicological issues resulting from wide spread application of synthetic pesticide has stimulated studies on the development of microbiological insecticides based on Microsporidian Paranosema locustae Canning and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum Driver and Milner. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the potential of P. locustae to control locusts and grasshoppers (Chapters 2 and 3) and (ii) the possibility of its combination with M. anisopliae to increase the efficacy of the two pathogens in regulation of locust and grasshopper populations in West Africa (chapters 4 and 5). The evaluation of the relative susceptibility of developmental stages of Oedaleus senegalensis and Schistocerca gregaria to different dosages of P. locustae indicated both lethal and sublethal effects of the pathogen against the hosts. Considering the lethal effects all tested nymphal stages suffered from significantly higher mortality compared to the control with always the younger nymphal instars being more susceptible compared to the older. Sublethal effects of P. locustae in the tested hosts included among other, delayed and abnormal development of the infected hosts, reduced host weight and vertical transmission of the pathogen from infected adults to the offspring. Laboratory investigation of the interaction of P. locustae and M. anisopliae indicated that additional inoculation with M. anisopliae following infection with P. locustae cause additive and synergistic mortality response of the two pathogens in fifth instar S. gregaria, resulting in both a significant reduction of Median Survival Time (MSTs) and a higher mortality in mixed infections compared to the single infection. Significantly fewer P. locustae spores were yielded in mixed infections compared to nymphs infected with P. locustae alone. However, M. anisopliae production was not affected by the mixed infections. Last but not least, based on the laboratory bioassay testing the relative susceptibility of grasshopper and locust developmental stages to P. locustae, a field trial was designed to target the younger instar of grasshopper. The results showed that within season grasshopper population reduction might be feasible when the pathogen is applied earlier after hatching. Moreover combined application of P. locustae and M. anisopliae under field condition confirmed that mixed application of the two pathogens could help to increase host population reduction in short time periods. In the light of the results from the laboratory bioassays testing different concentrations of P. locustae spores against different nymphal instars of O. senegalensis and S. gregaria, the effects of P. locustae on the two species can be classified as direct and indirect effects. The direct host mortality effect of P. locustae is greatly pathogen concentration dependent with younger instars being more susceptible than older instars. The longer Median Survival Time (MST) recorded in older nymphal developmental stage compared to the younger, confirms the high susceptibility of the latter. Almost 100% mortality can be reached in first and second instars in a maximum of 10 days while most fourth and fifth instar nymphs can survive P. locustae infection up to adulthood. Mortalities recorded when targeting the host at older stages remain low irrespective of the pathogen dosages. Although some of the results show a low susceptibility of the tested host to the pathogen (e.g., low concentrations against fifth instars, the indirect sublethal effect of the pathogen can be considered as an additional important factor that can contribute to overcome its low virulence. Younger instars infected at low P. locustae spore concentrations that did not die from the pathogen infection in most cas. Nº de ref. de la librería 9783867273695

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7.

Agbeko Kodjo Tounou
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag (2007)
ISBN 10: 3867273693 ISBN 13: 9783867273695
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag, 2007. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Language: English . Brand New Book. Nº de ref. de la librería LIB9783867273695

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Agbeko Kodjo Tounou
Editorial: Cuvillier Verlag Sep 2007 (2007)
ISBN 10: 3867273693 ISBN 13: 9783867273695
Nuevos Taschenbuch Cantidad: 1
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AHA-BUCH GmbH
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Descripción Cuvillier Verlag Sep 2007, 2007. Taschenbuch. Estado de conservación: Neu. Neuware - Locusts and grasshoppers are the most treating agricultural pests that represent with drought the first reason of famine in Sahelian regions of Africa. Concern about environmental and toxicological issues resulting from wide spread application of synthetic pesticide has stimulated studies on the development of microbiological insecticides based on Microsporidian Paranosema locustae Canning and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum Driver and Milner. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the potential of P. locustae to control locusts and grasshoppers (Chapters 2 and 3) and (ii) the possibility of its combination with M. anisopliae to increase the efficacy of the two pathogens in regulation of locust and grasshopper populations in West Africa (chapters 4 and 5). The evaluation of the relative susceptibility of developmental stages of Oedaleus senegalensis and Schistocerca gregaria to different dosages of P. locustae indicated both lethal and sublethal effects of the pathogen against the hosts. Considering the lethal effects all tested nymphal stages suffered from significantly higher mortality compared to the control with always the younger nymphal instars being more susceptible compared to the older. Sublethal effects of P. locustae in the tested hosts included among other, delayed and abnormal development of the infected hosts, reduced host weight and vertical transmission of the pathogen from infected adults to the offspring. Laboratory investigation of the interaction of P. locustae and M. anisopliae indicated that additional inoculation with M. anisopliae following infection with P. locustae cause additive and synergistic mortality response of the two pathogens in fifth instar S. gregaria, resulting in both a significant reduction of Median Survival Time (MSTs) and a higher mortality in mixed infections compared to the single infection. Significantly fewer P. locustae spores were yielded in mixed infections compared to nymphs infected with P. locustae alone. However, M. anisopliae production was not affected by the mixed infections. Last but not least, based on the laboratory bioassay testing the relative susceptibility of grasshopper and locust developmental stages to P. locustae, a field trial was designed to target the younger instar of grasshopper. The results showed that within season grasshopper population reduction might be feasible when the pathogen is applied earlier after hatching. Moreover combined application of P. locustae and M. anisopliae under field condition confirmed that mixed application of the two pathogens could help to increase host population reduction in short time periods. In the light of the results from the laboratory bioassays testing different concentrations of P. locustae spores against different nymphal instars of O. senegalensis and S. gregaria, the effects of P. locustae on the two species can be classified as direct and indirect effects. The direct host mortality effect of P. locustae is greatly pathogen concentration dependent with younger instars being more susceptible than older instars. The longer Median Survival Time (MST) recorded in older nymphal developmental stage compared to the younger, confirms the high susceptibility of the latter. Almost 100% mortality can be reached in first and second instars in a maximum of 10 days while most fourth and fifth instar nymphs can survive P. locustae infection up to adulthood. Mortalities recorded when targeting the host at older stages remain low irrespective of the pathogen dosages. Although some of the results show a low susceptibility of the tested host to the pathogen (e.g., low concentrations against fifth instars, the indirect sublethal effect of the pathogen can be considered as an additional important factor that can contribute to overcome its low virulence. Younger instars infected at low P. locustae spore concentrations that did not die from the pathogen infection in most cas. Nº de ref. de la librería 9783867273695

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