Electrostatic Motors: Their History, Types and Principles of Operation

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9781935023470: Electrostatic Motors: Their History, Types and Principles of Operation

The most authoritative and comprehensive book on the subject of using high voltage electric charge to power a motor. The book shows the type of electrostatic motor that was first invented by Ben Franklin in 1748. It also reviews and illustrates electric pendulum motors, electric wind motors, Franklin's spark motors, capacitor motors, inductance motors, corona motors, liquid immersed motors, electret motors and more. The last chapter shows how the electrostatic motor can be designed to be powered by atmospheric electricity, which Professor Jefimenko experimented with at the University of West Virginia. The author is very meticulous to give dates and references for the historical use of particularly unique electrostatic motors. Dr. Jefimenko's articles from Popular Science magazine are reprinted in the Appendix for those who want to build their own electrostatic motor. He also reviews the atmospheric potential for generating energy, pointing out it is in the gigawatt range. The book also includes his review article on the earth's electric field as a natural source of electrostatic energy.

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About the Author:

Professor Jefimenko (1922-2009) was hard-working, gifted, and lucky. He was born in the Ukraine. Caught in the buildup to World War II, he was forced into the Russian army and sent to Siberia for training. He was wounded at the Russian-German front, avoided capture and received medical treatment from a witch-doctor in a nearby village. Later he was apprehended and sent to a German work camp. His independent spirit attracted attention and extra beatings from guards. He managed to trade food rations with another prisoner for a book written in Russian about how to speak German. Guards stopped beating him once he began to speak their language. He improved his situation by learning to run a metal lathe and spent the rest of his time in the camp machining gun barrels. After the war he studied physics at the University of Goettingen, Germany (Vordiplom, 1950) where he attended lectures of famous scientists of those times. He married and came to the United States in search of new opportunity. His formal education was completed at Lewis and Clark College, Portland Oregon (BA, 1952), and University of Oregon (MA, 1954 and PhD, 1956). Oleg spent his entire career at West Virginia University Department of Physics. His lectures were enlivened by lecture room demonstrations. Most novel was his water stream loop-the-loop . Oleg s serious research work involved both theory and experimental aspects of spectroscopy, electricity and magnetism, and electrostatics. After retirement he had more time to explore new topics and wrote books on gravitation - cogravitational fields, electromagnetic retardation, and relativity.

Review:

Dr. Oleg Dmitrovich Jefimenko (1922-2009) was among the most valued of contributors to the Electric Spacecraft Journal. He supplied ESJ with review copies of his books, including Electrostatic Motors: Their History, Types, and Principles of Operation; Electromagnetic Retardation and Theory of Relativity: New Chapters in the Classical Theory of Fields; Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation: A Different Approach to the Theory of Electromagnetic and Gravitational Fields; and Electricity and Magnetism: An Introduction to the Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields. ESJ reviewed his ideas on retardation, current density, and various atomic clocks in previous journals. (See ESJ 6:37-38, 22:38-39, 31:6-9, and 40:25-27.) The following review of Electrostatic Motors is presented as a tribute in honor of the life work of a serious investigator in the physical sciences, who shared ESJ s passion for questioning assumptions, while never letting go of empiricism and reason. Undertaking investigations into electrostatics in the early 1970s, Jefimenko found the field largely abandoned. Toys had been created as curiosities in the 1700s, when the science was too primitive to take seriously. Jefimenko found the written record replete with colorful commentary, but devoid of quantitative analyses. His research into the topic included consulting ancient texts, forgotten journals, and museum closets where a lot of electrostatic machines had been stored for lack of understanding. The main reason electrostatic motors had not been taken seriously is that great voltages are required for their operation, and ESD is always working against the maintenance of high voltages. Nonetheless, some electrostatic motors have been built that run off input voltages in excess of 100 kV; others operate with currents on the order of nanoamps. One pendulum type electrostatic motor at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, operated nonstop off a Zamboni pile for eighty-six years. Another class of electrostatic motors would be the corona motors, developed by W. Holtz and J. C. Poggendorff. They consisted basically in the running of Wimshurst generators in reverse. A combination of fallacious appeals to authority and circular reasoning prevented the public s imagination from being captured to convert these machines into anything useful. A very different class of motors, known as capacitor motors, was invented by Karl Zipernowski. These motors consisted of a four-blade flat fan rotating between two brass cutouts of the same size and shape. Another unusual class of electrostatic motors is the electret motors. Electrets are permanently charged dielectrics, the electrical analogy of permanent magnets. A. N. Gubkin made the first electret motor. It consisted of diametrically situated electrets. The electret paddle was free to rotate through the dielectric spaces of two diametrically-situated capacitors. The polarity of the capacitors was regulated by commutators. Jefimenko had high hopes for a clean, renewable source of energy that would make electrostatic motors feasible. He invested a lot of effort attempting to harness appreciable horsepower from altitude induced potential differences in the atmosphere. --Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 47, March 30, 2011

This is an outstanding book not to be missed by anyone who is interested in energy generation. It is the best source of information and history regarding atmospheric electricity powering a motor and the various types of electrostatic motors that are suitable for atmopheric conversion of energy. The author, Professor Oleg Jefimenko from West Virginia University, estimated the potential energy reserve of the atmospheric electricity to be 200 gigawatts. Therefore, this book provides the impetus for a new source of energy, especially in dry climates where it can be utilized throughout the year. --Thomas Valone, PhD, PE

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Oleg Jefimenko
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Descripción Integrity Research Institiute, United States, 2011. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Revised edition. Language: English . Brand New Book. Describes the author s experiments with Electrostatic Motors, documenting with photographs and illustrations as well as explaining their construction, materials used and history. Nº de ref. de la librería AAG9781935023470

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Descripción Integrity Research Institiute, United States, 2011. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Revised edition. Language: English . Brand New Book. Describes the author s experiments with Electrostatic Motors, documenting with photographs and illustrations as well as explaining their construction, materials used and history. Nº de ref. de la librería AAG9781935023470

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