Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 45. Chapters: Bethlem myopathy, Botulism, Central core disease, Centronuclear myopathy, Congenital myopathy, Fields' disease, Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Hypokalemic periodic paralysis, Inflammatory myopathy, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Median nerve palsy, MERRF syndrome, Mitochondrial myopathy, Muscular dystrophy, Myasthenia gravis, Myotonia, Myotonia congenita, Myotonic dystrophy, Nemaline myopathy, Neuromuscular disease, Neuromuscular junction disease, Neuromyotonia, Paramyotonia congenita, Thyrotoxic myopathy, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, X-linked myotubular myopathy, Zaspopathy. Excerpt: Myasthenia gravis (from Greek μ?ς "muscle", "weakness", and Latin: "serious"; abbreviated MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigability. It is an autoimmune disorder, in which weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction, inhibiting the excitatory effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on nicotinic receptors throughout neuromuscular junctions. Myasthenia is treated medically with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressants, and, in selected cases, thymectomy. The disease incidence is 3-30 cases per million per year and rising as a result of increased awareness. MG must be distinguished from congenital myasthenic syndromes that can present similar symptoms but offer no response to immunosuppressive treatments. The most widely accepted classification of myasthenia gravis is the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Clinical Classification: Class III: Eye muscle weakness of any severity, moderate weakness of other muscles Class IV: Eye muscle weakness of any severity, severe weakness of other muscles Class V: Intubation needed to maintain airway Blepharoptosis of the left eyeThe hallmark of myasthenia gravis is fatigability. Muscles become progressively weaker during periods of activity and improve after periods of rest. Muscles that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expressions, chewing, talking, and swallowing are especially susceptible. The muscles that control breathing and neck and limb movements can also be affected. Often, the physical examination yields results within normal limits. The onset of the disorder can be sudden. Often symptoms are intermittent. The diagnosis of myasthenia gravis may be delayed if the symptoms are subtle or variable. In most cases, the first noticeable symptom is weakness of the eye muscles. In others, difficulty in swallowing and slurred speech may be the first signs. The degree o
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