Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 36. Chapters: Niqqud, Schwa, Apostrophe, Cantillation, Shva, Holam, Dagesh, Kubutz and Shuruk, Zeire, Geresh, Kamatz, Segol, Patach, Hiriq, Rafe, Gershayim, Mappiq. Excerpt: The apostrophe ( , often rendered as ' ) is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritic mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet or certain other alphabets. In English, it serves three purposes: According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the word comes ultimately from Greek (, " 'turning away', or elision"), through Latin and French. The apostrophe is different from the closing single quotation mark (usually rendered identically but serving a different purpose), from the similar-looking prime ( ′ ), which is used to indicate measurement in feet or arcminutes, as well as for various mathematical purposes, and from the ?okina ( ),which represents a glottal stop in Polynesian languages. The apostrophe was introduced into English in the sixteenth century in imitation of French practice. Introduced by Geoffroy Tory (1530), the apostrophe was used in place of a vowel letter to indicate elision (as in l'heure in place of la heure). It was frequently used in place of letter e when no actual vowel sound was elided (as in un' heure). Modern French orthography has restored the spelling une heure. From the sixteenth century, following French practice, the apostrophe was used when a vowel letter was omitted either because of elision (as is in I'm in place of I am) or because the letter no longer represented a sound (as in lov'd in place of loved). English spelling retained many inflections which were often not pronounced as syllables, notably verb suffixes -est, -eth, -es, -ed and noun suffix -es representing either plurals or possessives (also known as genitives). Thus, apostrophe followed by s was often used to mark plural, especially when the noun was a ...
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