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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 119. Not illustrated. Chapters: Thorium-229, Thorium-232, Thorium-230, Thorium-234, Thorium-228, Thorium-231, Thorium-233, Thorium-209, Thorium-210, Thorium-211, Thorium-212, Thorium-213, Thorium-214, Thorium-215, Thorium-216, Thorium-217, Thorium-218, Thorium-219, Thorium-220, Thorium-221, Thorium-222, Thorium-223, Thorium-224, Thorium-225, Thorium-226, Thorium-227, Thorium-235, Thorium-236, Thorium-237, Thorium-238. Excerpt: Although thorium (Th) has multiple naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope is relatively stable, having a large half life in comparison to the age of the earth (Th). Nearly all natural thorium is Th. As such, thorium is considered to be mononuclidic. It has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition and thus an atomic mass can be given. Standard atomic mass: 232.03806(2) uIsotopes of thorium occurring within the radioactive disintegration chains of actinium, thorium, and uranium were known as Twenty-seven radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Th with a half-life of 14.05 billion years, Th with a half-life of 75,380 years, Th with a half-life of 7340 years, and Th with a half-life of 1.92 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than thirty days and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than ten minutes. One isotope, Th, has a nuclear isomer (or metastable state) with a remarkably low excitation energy, recently measured to be 7.6 ± 0.5 eV. The known isotopes of thorium range in atomic weight from 209 u (Th) to 238 u (Th).
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