Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 54. Chapters: Lens, Fresnel lens, Burning glass, Superlens, Eyepiece, Aspheric lens, Microlens, Lens flare, Achromatic lens, Lenticular lens, Condenser, Oil immersion, Magnifying glass, Luneburg lens, Visby lenses, Apochromat, Nimrud lens, Objective, Barlow lens, Crizal, Biogon, List of lens designs, Non-achromatic objective, Lens Controller, Thin lens, Parfocal lens, Doublet, Solid immersion lens, Hyperradiant Fresnel lens, Coddington magnifier, Axicon, Relay lens, Simple lens, Cylindrical lens, Toric lens, PU scope, Triplet lens, SELFOC Microlens, Field flattener lens, Gauss lens. Excerpt: A superlens, super lens or perfect lens is a lens which uses metamaterials to go beyond the diffraction limit. The diffraction limit is an inherent limitation in conventional optical devices or lenses. In 2000, a type of lens was proposed, consisting of a metamaterial that compensates for wave decay and reconstructs images in the near field. In addition, both propagating and evanescent waves contribute to the resolution of the image. The first superlens with a negative refractive index provided resolution three times better than the diffraction limit and was demonstrated at microwave frequencies. Subsequently, the first optical superlens (an optical lens which exceeds the diffraction limit) was created and demonstrated, but the lens did not rely on negative refraction. Instead, a thin silver film was used to enhance the evanescent modes through surface plasmon coupling. Two developments in superlens research were reported in 2008. In the first case, alternate layers of silver and magnesium fluoride were deposited on a substrate. Nanoscale grids were then cut into the layers, which resulted in a 3-dimensional composite structure with a negative refractive index in the near-infrared region. In the second case, a metamaterial was formed from sil...
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