Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 23. Chapters: Amylascus, Andebbia, Castoreum (fungus), Chamonixia, Choiromyces, Chondrogaster, Dingleya, Fischerula, Genabea, Genea, Geopora, Gummiglobus, Gummivena, Hydnocystis, Kalapuya brunnea, Labyrinthomyces, List of Tuber (fungus) species, Malajczukia, Mesophellia, Nothocastoreum, Paradoxa (fungus), Paurocotylis, Phallobata, Reddellomyces, Truffle, Tuberaceae, Tuber aestivum, Tuber gibbosum, Tuber lijiangense, Tuber microspermum, Tuber microspiculatum, Tuber oregonense, Tuber polyspermum, Tuber sinoalbidum, Tuber sinoexcavatum. Excerpt: A truffle is one of a type of subterranean mushroom, or the fruiting body of such a mushroom. Spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi. Almost all truffles are ectomycorrhizal and are therefore usually found in close association with trees. There are hundreds of species of truffles. The fruiting body of some (mostly in the genus Tuber) are highly prized as a food: French gourmand Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called them "the diamond of the kitchen". Edible truffles are held in high esteem in Middle Eastern, French, Spanish, northern Italian and Greek cooking, as well as in international . The origin of the word truffle appears to be the Latin term , meaning "swelling" or "lump", which became tufer- and gave rise to the various European terms: French , Spanish , Danish , German , Swedish , Dutch , Polish , Serbian and Croatian . In Portuguese, the words and are synonyms, the latter closer to the Latin term. The German word ("potato") is derived from the Italian (truffle) because of superficial similarities. The mycelia of truffles form symbiotic relationships with the roots of several tree species including beech, poplar, oak, birch, hornbeam, hazel, and pine. They prefer argillaceous or calcareous soils which are well drained and neutral or alkaline. Truffles fruit throughout the year, depending on the species and can be found buried between the leaf litter and the soil. The phylogeny and biogeography of truffles was first proposed in 2008 using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear DNA with five major clades (Aestivum, Excavatum, Rufum, Melanosporum and Puberulum); this was later improved and expanded in 2010 using large-subunits (LSU) of mitochondrial DNA to nine major clades. The Magnatum and Macrosporum clades were distinguished as distinct from the Aestivum clade. The Gibbosum clade was resolved as distinct from all other clades, and the Spinoreticulatum clade was separated from the Rufum clade. White truffle washed an
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