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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1885 Excerpt: ... and Muhammadan governments or by village authorities. In the case of village grants possession was acquired by bhogavta or prescription, the assent of the state being implied by continued acquiescence. Government indms were generally unattested by deed, the most respected bearing the ruler's autograph. Village indms were granted either in reward for services or by special favour. They were often wrung out of the village authorities by Brahmans in office. Captain Grant Duff (1822) was satisfied that scrutiny would show that many of the village grants were false and were held by fraudulent collusion with village officers. Captain Grant Duff arranged state and village grants or indms under six classes: Hindu, Musalman, devasthdn or religious, dharmdddy or charitable, dengis or miscellaneous gifts, and vatans or village staff grants. Hindu indms were of six varieties: to Brahmans, to Gosavis or religious beggars, to Marathas for war services, to Bhats or reciters, to Jangams or Lingayat priests, and to Fair Flags, as each village used to send a flag to the great fairs or religious gatherings. Musalman perpetual grants or indms, all of which were included under the head of charity or khairdt, were of eight varieties, to Musalmans, to Musalman beggars, to tumblers or Dombaris, to bull showmen or Gopals, to bear-men or Darveshis, to eunuchs or Hujres, to picture showmen or Chitrakathis, and to reciters or Dharas. Devasthdn or religious grants were both Hindu and Musalman. The Hindu religious grants were of three varieties; (1) Maratha devasthdns made either by rulers or village officers, including grants to famous temples for lights or dips, for food or naivedya, for worship or puja on great festival days or vchchdvs; (2) gdon devta to meet the expense of village...
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