Biology Problem Solver (Problem Solvers Solution Guides)

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9780878915149: Biology Problem Solver (Problem Solvers Solution Guides)

Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.

Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of biology currently available, with hundreds of biology problems that cover everything from the molecular basis of life to plants and invertebrates. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions.

DETAILS
- The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides.
- They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects.
- They greatly simplify study and learning tasks.
- They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding.
- They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject.
- They work exceptionally well with any text in its field.
- PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in 41 subjects.
- Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts.
- Most are over 1000 pages.
- PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly.
- Educators consider the PROBLEM SOLVERS the most effective and valuable study aids; students describe them as "fantastic" - the best books on the market.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Chapter 1: The Molecular Basis of Life
Units and Microscopy
Properties of Chemical Reactions
Molecular Bonds and Forces
Acids and Bases
Properties of Cellular Constituents
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 2: Cells and Tissues
Classification of Cells
Functions of Cellular Organelles
Types of Animal Tissue
Types of Plant Tissue
Movement of Materials Across Membranes
Specialization and Properties of Life
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 3: Cellular Metabolism
Properties of Enzymes
Types of Cellular Reactions
Energy Production in the Cell
Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactions
The Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis
Electron Transport
Reactions of ATP
Anabolism and Catabolism
Energy Expenditure
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 4: The Interrelationship of Living Things
Taxonomy of Organisms
Nutritional Requirements and Procurement
Environmental Chains and Cycles
Diversification of the Species
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 5: Bacteria and Viruses
Bacterial Morphology and Characteristics
Bacterial Nutrition
Bacterial Reproduction
Bacterial Genetics
Pathological and Constructive Effects of Bacteria
Viral Morphology and Characteristics
Viral Genetics
Viral Pathology
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 6: Algae and Fungi
Types of Algae
Characteristics of Fungi
Differentiation of Algae and Fungi
Evolutionary Characteristics of Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 7: The Bryophytes and Lower Vascular Plants
Environmental Adaptations
Classification of Lower Vascular Plants
Differentiation Between Mosses and Ferns
Comparison Between Vascular and Non-Vascular Plants
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 8: The Seed Plants
Classification of Seed Plants
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
Seeds
Monocots and Dicots
Reproduction in Seed Plants
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 9: General Characteristics of Green Plants
Reproduction
Photosynthetic Pigments
Reactions of Photosynthesis
Plant Respiration
Transport Systems in Plants
Tropisms
Plant Hormones
Regulation of Photoperiodism
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 10: Nutrition and Transport in Seed Plants
Properties of Roots
Differentiation Between Roots and Stems
Herbaceous and Woody Plants
Gas Exchange
Transpiration and Guttation
Nutrient and Water Transport
Environmental Influences on Plants
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 11: Lower Invertebrates
The Protozoans
Characteristics
Flagellates
Sarcodines
Ciliates
Porifera
Coelenterata
The Acoelomates
Platyhelminthes
Nemertina
The Pseduocoelomates
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 12: Higher Invertebrates
The Protostomia
Molluscs
Annelids
Arthropods
Classification
External Morphology
Musculature
The Senses
Organ Systems
Reproduction and Development
Social Orders
The Dueterostomia
Echinoderms
Hemichordata
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 13: Chordates
Classifications
Fish
Amphibia
Reptiles
Birds and Mammals
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 14: Blood and Immunology
Properties of Blood and its Components
Clotting
Gas Transport
Erythrocyte Production and Morphology
Defense Systems
Types of Immunity
Antigen-Antibody Interactions
Cell Recognition
Blood Types
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 15: Transport Systems
Nutrient Exchange
Properties of the Heart
Factors Affecting Blood Flow
The Lymphatic System
Diseases of the Circulation
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 16: Respiration
Types of Respiration
Human Respiration
Respiratory Pathology
Evolutionary Adaptations
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 17: Nutrition
Nutrient Metabolism
Comparative Nutrient Ingestion and Digestion
The Digestive Pathway
Secretion and Absorption
Enzymatic Regulation of Digestion
The Role of the Liver
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 18: Homeostasis and Excretion
Fluid Balance
Glomerular Filtration
The Interrelationship Between the Kidney and the Circulation
Regulation of Sodium and Water Excretion
Release of Substances from the Body
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 19: Protection and Locomotion
Skin
Muscles: Morphology and Physiology
Bone
Teeth
Types of Skeletal Systems
Structural Adaptations for Various Modes of Locomotion
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 20: Coordination
Regulatory Systems
Vision
Taste
The Auditory Sense
Anesthetics
The Brain
The Spinal Cord
Spinal and Cranial Nerves
The Autonomic Nervous System
Neuronal Morphology
The Nerve Impulse
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 21: Hormonal Control
Distinguishing Characteristics of Hormones
The Pituitary Gland
Gastrointestinal Endocrinology
The Thyroid Gland
Regulation of Metamorphosis and Development
The Parathyroid Gland
The Pineal Gland
The Thymus Gland
The Adrenal Gland
The Mechanisms of Hormonal Action
The Gonadotrophic Hormones
Sexual Development
The Menstrual Cycle
Contraception
Pregnancy and Parturition
Menopause
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 22: Reproduction
Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction
Gametogenesis
Fertilization
Parturation and Embryonic Formation and Development
Human Reproduction and Contraception
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 23: Embryonic Development
Cleavage
Gastrulation
Differentiation of the Primary Organ Rudiments
Parturation
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 24: Structure and Function of Genes
DNA: The Genetic Material
Structure and Properties of DNA
The Genetic Code
RNA and Protein Synthesis
Genetic Regulatory Systems
Mutation
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 25: Principles and Theories of Genetics
Genetic Investigations
Mitosis and Meiosis
Mendelian Genetics
Codominance
Di- and Trihybrid Crosses
Multiple Alleles
Sex Linked Traits
Extrachromosomal Inheritance
The Law of Independent Segregation
Genetic Linkage and Mapping
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 26: Human Inheritance and Population Genetics
Expression of Genes
Pedigrees
Genetic Probabilities
The Hardy-Weinberg Law
Gene Frequencies
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 27: Principles and Theories of Evolution
Definitions
Classical Theories of Evolution
Applications of Classical Theory
Evolutionary Factors
Speciation
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 28: Evidence for Evolution
Definitions
Fossils and Dating
The Paleozoic Era
The Mesozoic Era
Biogeographic Realms
Types of Evolutionary Evidence
Ontogeny
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 29: Human Evolution
Fossils
Distinguishing Features
The Rise of Early Man
Modern Man
Overview
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 30: Principles of Ecology
Definitions
Competition
Interspecific Relationships
Characteristics of Population Densities
Interrelationships with the Ecosystem
Ecological Succession
Environmental Characteristics of the Ecosystem
Short Answer Questions for Review
Chapter 31: Animal Behavior
Types of Behavioral Patterns
Orientation
Communication
Hormonal Regulation of Behavior
Adaptive Behavior
Courtship
Learning and Conditioning
Circadian Rhythms
Societal Behavior
Short Answer Questions for Review
Index

WHAT THIS BOOK IS FOR

Students have generally found biology a difficult subject to understand and learn. Despite the publication of hundreds of textbooks in this field, each one intended to provide an improvement over previous textbooks, students of biology continue to remain perplexed as a result of numerous subject areas that must be remembered and correlated when solving problems. Various interpretations of biology terms also contribute to the difficulties of mastering the subject.

In a study of biology, REA found the following basic reasons underlying the inherent difficulties of biology:

No systematic rules of analysis were ever developed to follow in a step-by-step manner to solve typically encountered problems. This results from numerous different conditions and principles involved in a problem that leads to many possible different solution methods. To prescribe a set of rules for each of the possible variations would involve an enormous number of additional steps, making this task more burdensome than solving the problem directly due to the expectation of much trial and error.

Current textbooks normally explain a given principle in a few pages written by a biologist who has insight into the subject matter not shared by others. These explanations are often written in an abstract manner that causes confusion as to the principle's use and application. Explanations then are often not sufficiently detailed or extensive enough to make the reader aware of the wide range of applications and different aspects of the principle being studied. The numerous possible variations of principles and their applications are usually not discussed, and it is left to the reader to discover this while doing exercises. Accordingly, the average student is expected to rediscover that which has long been established and practiced, but not always published or adequately explained.

The examples typically following the explanation of a topic are too few in number and too simple to enable the student to obtain a thorough grasp of the involved principles. The explanations do not provide sufficient basis to solve problems that may be assigned for homework or given on examinations.

Poorly solved examples such as these can be presented in abbreviated form which leaves out much explanatory material between steps, and as a result requires the reader to figure out the missing information. This leaves the reader with an impression that the problems and even the subject are hard to learn - completely the opposite of what an example is supposed to do.

Poor examples are often worded in a confusing or obscure way. They might not state the nature of the problem or they present a solution, which appears to have no direct relation to the problem. These problems usually offer an overly general discussion - never revealing how or what is to be solved.

Many examples do not include accompanying diagrams or graphs, denying the reader the exposure necessary for drawing good diagrams and graphs. Such practice only strengthens understanding by simplifying and organizing biology processes.

Students can learn the subject only by doing the exercises themselves and reviewing them in class, obtaining experience in applying the principles with their different ramifications.

In doing the exercises by themselves, students find that they are required to devote considerable more time to biology than to other subjects, because they are uncertain with regard to the selection and application of the theorems and principles involved. It is also often necessary for students to discover those "tricks" not revealed in their texts (or review books) that make it possible to solve problems easily. Students must usually resort to methods of trial and error to discover these "tricks," therefore finding out that they may sometimes spend several hours to solve a single problem.

When reviewing the exercises in classrooms, instructors usually request students to take turns in writing solutions on the boards and explaining them to the class. Students often find it difficult to explain in a manner that holds the interest of the class, and enables the remaining students to follow the material written on the boards. The remaining students in the class are thus too occupied with copying the material off the boards to follow the professor's explanations.

This book is intended to aid students in biology overcome the difficulties described by supplying detailed illustrations of the solution methods that are usually not apparent to students. Solution methods are illustrated by problems that have been selected from those most often assigned for class work and given on examinations. The problems are arranged in order of complexity to enable students to learn and understand a particular topic by reviewing the problems in sequence. The problems are illustrated with detailed, step-by-step explanations, to save the students large amounts of time that is often needed to fill in the gaps that are usually found between steps of illustrations in textbooks or review/outline books.

The staff of REA considers biology a subject that is best learned by allowing students to view the methods of analysis and solution techniques. This learning approach is similar to that practiced in various scientific laboratories, particularly in the medical fields.

In using this book, students may review and study the illustrated problems at their own pace; students are not limited to the time such problems receive in the classroom.

When students want to look up a particular type of problem and solution, they can readily locate it in the book by referring to the index that has been extensively prepared. It is also possible to locate a particular type of problem by glancing at just the material within the boxed portions. Each problem is numbered a...

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