History Of Communication Study

4,04 valoración promedio
( 46 valoraciones por Goodreads )
 
9780684840017: History Of Communication Study

An indepth treatise on the history of human communication with archival interviews and research of those who have studied it as an intrical part of the social sciences. Paper. DLC: Communication History - 19th Century.

"Sinopsis" puede pertenecer a otra edición de este libro.

About the Author:

Dr. Everett M. Rogers is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where he teaches and conducts research on the diffusion of innovations.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Chapter 1

WILBUR SCHRAMM AND THE FOUNDING OF COMMUNICATION STUDY

The difficulty in summing up a field like human communication is that it has no land that is exclusively its own. Communication is the fundamental social process.
Wilbur Schramm

On April 14, 1981, Wilbur Schramm returned from Honolulu, where he was living in retirement, to Iowa City, to give the Les Moeller Lecture at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Iowa. It was a nostalgic visit. Schramm had first come to Iowa in 1930 to pursue his Ph.D. degree. In 1943 he had organized the first Ph.D. program in mass communication in the world while he was director of the Iowa journalism school. When he moved to Illinois in 1947, Les Moeller took over Schramm's position at Iowa. Schramm (1981) began the 1981 Moeller lecture in this way:

Miss Betty [his wife] and I want to thank you for letting us come back to spend a few days with you on this campus for which we have so much affection and have not seen for so long....It was about 48 years ago that I became aware of a slender, pretty girl in the front row of one of the first classes that I taught at Iowa....About 18 months later she and I were married....Iowa was a remarkable place in the 1930s and '40s, and chiefly because of the spirit of creativity that pervaded it....Remember this was Iowa in the middle of the Depression, with a budget about one-eighth what I found when I went to Illinois in 1947....In a place where one might not expect to find him, the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, was one of the most creative psychologists in the world, Kurt Lewin. I want to talk about what has happened to academic journalism and communication since the decade of the '30s when Ted [George] Gallup was a brand-new Ph.D., Frank Mott was a brand-new Director [of the School of Journalism] at Iowa, and the country was in its worst depression.

Thirty-eight years before this speech, in 1943, Schramm had returned to the University of Iowa from his wartime duties in Washington, D.C., with a vision of communication study, to found the first Ph.D. program in mass communication and the first communication research institute. At that time Schramm was influenced by Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Carl I. Hovland, and other social scientists who were conducting communication research connected with World War II, which brought together scholars from psychology, sociology, and political science to form the new field of communication. Wilbur Schramm was the founder of communication study and is the central figure in its history.

WILBUR SCHRAMM

Wilbur Schramm (1907-1987) was born in Marietta, Ohio, on August 5, 1907 (Figure 1.1). This pastoral setting, located on the southern boundary of Ohio, was named by French explorers after their queen, Marie Antoinette. Schramm's ancestors came from Schrammsburg, Germany, and their Teutonic name caused difficulties for the family during World War I, when Schramm was a boy. His father was a lawyer in Marietta, whose legal practice suffered (Cartier 1988, p. 58).

Schramm's Stutter

Wilbur Schramm developed a severe stutter at age five due to "an amateurishly performed tonsillectomy" (Cartier 1988, p. 59). His speech difficulty was embarrassing to him and his family. As the stutter persisted, Schramm's father withdrew his interest in his only son, for whom he had dreamed of a career in law and politics (Coberly 1992). The boy's stutter was traumatic for him, such as when he had to recite a section of Martin Luther's catechism before the Lutheran Church congregation (Cartier 1988, p. 59). He avoided speaking in public. Instead of giving the valedictory address at his high school graduation, Schramm played "The Londonderry Air" on his flute. But when he graduated summa cum laude from Marietta College in history and political science in 1928, he did give a valedictory speech. Gradually Schramm learned to live with his stutter, which eventually became less pronounced. Nevertheless, his speech difficulty had an effect later in his life, eventually leading him into the field of communication for a second career (Table 1.1).

Even as a boy, Schramm displayed the can-do spirit that was to characterize a career in which his zest, creativeness, and intellectual abilities allowed him to master new fields. His only sister, Helen, a few years younger, once was struggling with a difficult piano piece. He finally said, "I don't see how you can possibly have so much trouble with that," and sat down and played it perfectly. On recalling this incident years later, Schramm's sister cried indignantly: "And he hadn't even studied the piano!" (Coberly 1992).

Schramm's mentors at the University of Iowa in the early 1930s did not feel that the brilliant young scholar could teach due to his stutter. But eventually, with speech therapy and perhaps with growing confidence about his verbal ability, Schramm overcame his stuttering problem bit by bit (Cartier 1988, p. 111). He made teaching his lifetime career, and in later life his stammer was a problem only occasionally.

Schramm spoke with difficulty but wrote easily, and he earned his college expenses as a part-time sports reporter for the Marietta Register and as a stringer for the Associated Press. He continued his part-time newspaper work at the Boston Herald during graduate work at Harvard University, completing his M.A. degree in American Civilization in 1930. Later, looking back to his Harvard studies, Schramm said that he was most influenced by Alfred North Whitehead, the famous philosopher (and, like Schramm, a stutterer), from whom he took a graduate-level course, illustrating Schramm's desire to seek out great minds.

Why did Schramm leave Harvard, after earning his master's degree, for the tree-lined banks of the Iowa River? Tuition at Harvard was $500 per semester, and Schramm had to struggle financially. At one time during his Harvard sojourn, he worked at six part-time jobs simultaneously (Schramm 1942-1943, p. 3). Later he was awarded a graduate fellow-ship, and the financial pressure eased somewhat, but then the stock market crashed, bringing on the Great Depression. Another reason Schramm moved to the University of Iowa for his doctorate was connected to his stuttering. One of the top experts in stuttering in the United States, Professor Lee Edward Travis, conducted research on, and treatment of, stuttering at Iowa. He theorized that wrong-handedness might be a factor in stuttering, so he strapped Schramm's right hand to his side with a leather contraption. It did not help.

Travis's work on stuttering was carried forward at Iowa by Wendell Johnson, and it was he who helped Schramm by means of counseling and therapeutic exercises. Johnson had been five years old when he began stuttering (a common age among the approximately percent of the U.S. population afflicted with stuttering). Stuttering is often diagnosed by perfectionist parents whose child may actually have only the hesitations and repetitions characteristic of the normal speech of most young children. In that sense, stuttering is a socially defined malady. Further, most individuals seldom stutter when alone but only when talking face-to-face with others (Schramm did not stutter when talking on the telephone), especially in a stressful situation (such as giving a speech). While he was the director of the Iowa Speech Clinic in the 1930s, Wendell Johnson investigated these social aspects of stuttering. He discovered a tribe of Indians that had no stuttering -- not a single member of the tribe stuttered, and the tribe had no word for stuttering or other speech defects in their language. "The Indian children were not criticized or evaluated on the basis of their speech" (Johnson, quoted by McElwain 1991, p. 112). Johnson was much more than just a speech therapist. He related his treatment and study of stuttering to linguistic theory and to general semantics. He saw stuttering as what would today be called a communication problem. Certainly Johnson passed this viewpoint along to Schramm. His stuttering problem was thus one reason for Schramm's early interest in communication.

A Post-Doc in Experimental Psychology

Schramm's treatment for his stuttering made him keenly aware of the emerging field of communication study and led him eventually into experimental research on speech behavior. But Schramm majored in the humanities at Iowa, earning a Ph.D. in English literature in 1932. His dissertation was an analysis of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's epic poem Hiawatha. Schramm then received a postdoctoral fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies (Schramm 1935, p. 5) and stayed on at Iowa for two years of postdoctoral study with Professor Carl E. Seashore in the Psychology Department. Schramm conducted laboratory experiments on audiology problems and learned quantitative research approaches. He was acquiring the tools of a social scientist. The depression meant that faculty positions in English departments were scarce, and Schramm's postdoctoral fellowship at Iowa was a means of survival.

Also, Schramm felt that his scientific training needed strengthening. Throughout his lifetime, Schramm was attracted to individuals of excellence, and Seashore was an important academic figure at Iowa: professor of psychology, a pioneer experimental researcher, and long-time dean of the graduate school. A respected historian of the University of Iowa considers Seashore to be one of the most important shapers of the university's directions -- even more important than several of the university's presidents (Persons 1990).

Born Carl Emil Sjöstrand in Sweden in 1866, Seashore migrated with his family at age three to an Iowa farm. Shortly, Seashore's parents changed the family name. Carl Seashore earned his Ph.D. degree in experimental psychology at Yale University, getting in "on the ground floor" of this new field, as he liked to say (Persons 1990, p. 107). While on a European trip, he visited the experimental laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig, considered the birthplace of psychology. In 1897, Seashore joined the University of Iowa as an assistant professor of psychology and combined his personal interest in music with his scientific expertise, conducting experiments on a variety of acoustical and speech problems. Seashore thus represented a scientific approach to Schramm's personal problem of stuttering. He learned experimental design, the use of laboratory equipment, and how to think like a psychologist.

The fact that Schramm would conduct postdoctoral research in a field that he had not previously studied was a statement of his can-do spirit. Such a seemingly risky move signaled Schramm's later mid-career shift from English literature to journalism education and then to the new field of communication study that he created. This spirit characterized Schramm's entire life and was one of his most important qualities. He excelled in widely different fields. For example, he was an athlete, good enough to be offered a tryout at third base with the Columbus Red Birds, a Triple-A professional baseball farm club. While he was a graduate student at Harvard University, he played the flute with the Boston Civic Symphonic Orchestra. He was a licensed airplane pilot. He once surprised David Berlo, his doctoral advisee at Illinois in the 1950s, by breaking off from a morning office conference in Urbana for travel to a luncheon meeting with the Kellogg Foundation trustees in Battle Creek, Michigan, and then resuming his office discussion with Berlo in the afternoon.' In the 1960s, while a senior faculty member at Stanford, Schramm bought a self-instruct, ion manual and taught himself FORTRAN computer programming. Schramm wrote so profusely during his eighteen years at Stanford that he wore out several electric type-writers (Nelson 1977, p. 17). As his daughter noted, "He could no more stop writing then breathing....In fact, he did stop the two together" (Coberly 1992). Schramm's life is "a gold mine of human interest material" (Starck 1991). Wilbur Schramm was good at almost everything he put his mind to. Everyone who knew him well begins by describing Schramm as a Renaissance man. The self-confidence thus displayed is an important quality for the founder of a new academic field.

THE IOWA WRITERS' WORKSHOP

From 1935 to 1942, Schramm was an assistant professor in the English Department at the University of Iowa, where he attained early fame as director of the Iowa Writers' Workshop, an intimate group of graduate students working closely with Schramm and several other faculty members in order to gain skills in fiction writing through an apprenticeship experience. The workshop grew out of a graduate seminar in fiction writing that had been taught by Professor Edwin Ford Piper for several years at the University of Iowa. Piper gave his course a regional focus, stressing Iowa culture, in order to balance the eastern seaboard bias of much American literature. The University of Iowa pioneered in granting M.F.A. and Ph.D. degrees for theses and dissertations that represented exemplary fiction writing.

In 1939, when Piper died, Schramm was named director of the workshop. His appointment came as a surprise to him: "When he [Piper] died suddenly of a heart attack, I had to take over. They should probably have gotten someone else at that time, and I rather expected them to, but I had a little while when no one else was there, and so had a lot of fun doing what I thought needed doing" (Schramm to Paul Engel, August 10, 1976, University of Iowa Libraries, Department of Special Collections). Piper's graduate seminar on fiction writing, widely called the "writers' workshop," thus grew into a program officially identified in the university catalog as the Iowa Writers' Workshop. The workshop consisted of ten to fifteen graduate students who were admitted each fall and five professors, most of whom taught part-time in the workshop. Schramm placed less emphasis on Iowa culture than had Piper. Students came from all over the United States, and the program became nationwide in focus. It rapidly achieved fame for its excellence.

In its teaching/learning style, the workshop was participatory and intimate. Schramm held an individual conference with each student once each week in his office (Wilbers 1980, p. 64). When a student had written something that Schramm considered ready, it was presented in a weekly seminar, which often met at Schramm's home. In its methods, although not in its content, the Iowa Writers' Workshop was a pilot for the doctoral programs in communication that Schramm was to launch subsequently at Iowa, Illinois, and Stanford.

The workshop, which remains one of the best graduate programs in creative writing in the United States, was small in size, elite, and of excellent quality. It taught students how to write fiction by having them write, with Schramm and other faculty acting as coaches. Such literary luminaries as James Michener, Robert Penn Warren, and John Cheever came to the workshop to teach and to write. Philip Roth wrote Letting Go and John Irving wrote The World According to Garp at the workshop, and Kurt Vonnegut wrote Slaughterhouse ...

"Sobre este título" puede pertenecer a otra edición de este libro.

Los mejores resultados en AbeBooks

1.

Rogers, Everett M.
Editorial: Simon and Schuster
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Cantidad: > 20
Librería
INDOO
(Avenel, NJ, Estados Unidos de America)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Simon and Schuster. Estado de conservación: New. Brand New. Nº de ref. de la librería 0684840014

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 18,11
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 2,96
A Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

2.

Everett M. Rogers
Editorial: SIMON SCHUSTER, United States (1997)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Paperback Cantidad: 10
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
The Book Depository
(London, Reino Unido)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción SIMON SCHUSTER, United States, 1997. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Original ed.. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. Nº de ref. de la librería AAV9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 23,85
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: GRATIS
De Reino Unido a Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

3.

Everett M. Rogers
Editorial: SIMON SCHUSTER, United States (1997)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Paperback Cantidad: 10
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
The Book Depository US
(London, Reino Unido)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción SIMON SCHUSTER, United States, 1997. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Original ed.. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. Nº de ref. de la librería AAV9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 23,90
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: GRATIS
De Reino Unido a Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

4.

Everett M. Rogers
Editorial: Simon and Schuster (1997)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Cantidad: > 20
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
Pbshop
(Wood Dale, IL, Estados Unidos de America)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Simon and Schuster, 1997. PAP. Estado de conservación: New. New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. THIS BOOK IS PRINTED ON DEMAND. Established seller since 2000. Nº de ref. de la librería IQ-9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 22,76
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 3,38
A Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

5.

Rogers, Everett M.
Editorial: Free Press (2016)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Paperback Cantidad: 1
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
Ria Christie Collections
(Uxbridge, Reino Unido)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Free Press, 2016. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. PRINT ON DEMAND Book; New; Publication Year 2016; Not Signed; Fast Shipping from the UK. No. book. Nº de ref. de la librería ria9780684840017_lsuk

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 23,86
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 4,35
De Reino Unido a Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

6.

Rogers, Everett M.
Editorial: Free Press (2017)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Paperback Cantidad: > 20
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
Murray Media
(North Miami Beach, FL, Estados Unidos de America)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Free Press, 2017. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Never used! This item is printed on demand. Nº de ref. de la librería 0684840014

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 29,31
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 1,68
A Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

7.

Rogers, Everett M.
Editorial: Free Press 7/1/1997 (1997)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Paperback or Softback Cantidad: 10
Librería
BargainBookStores
(Grand Rapids, MI, Estados Unidos de America)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Free Press 7/1/1997, 1997. Paperback or Softback. Estado de conservación: New. History of Communication Study. Book. Nº de ref. de la librería BBS-9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 31,23
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: GRATIS
A Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

8.

Everett M. Rogers
Editorial: Free Press (1997)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Tapa blanda Cantidad: 1
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Free Press, 1997. Estado de conservación: New. This item is printed on demand for shipment within 3 working days. Nº de ref. de la librería GM9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 28,49
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 2,99
De Alemania a Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

9.

Rogers E
Editorial: Simon and Schuster (1997)
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Cantidad: > 20
Impresión bajo demanda
Librería
Books2Anywhere
(Fairford, GLOS, Reino Unido)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Simon and Schuster, 1997. PAP. Estado de conservación: New. New Book. Delivered from our UK warehouse in 3 to 5 business days. THIS BOOK IS PRINTED ON DEMAND. Established seller since 2000. Nº de ref. de la librería LQ-9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 21,36
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 10,13
De Reino Unido a Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

10.

Everett M. Rogers
Editorial: Free Press
ISBN 10: 0684840014 ISBN 13: 9780684840017
Nuevos Paperback Cantidad: > 20
Librería
BuySomeBooks
(Las Vegas, NV, Estados Unidos de America)
Valoración
[?]

Descripción Free Press. Paperback. Estado de conservación: New. Paperback. 592 pages. Dimensions: 9.2in. x 6.1in. x 1.3in.An indepth treatise on the history of human communication with archival interviews and research of those who have studied it as an intrical part of the social sciences. Paper. DLC: Communication History - 19th Century. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Nº de ref. de la librería 9780684840017

Más información sobre esta librería | Hacer una pregunta a la librería

Comprar nuevo
EUR 28,92
Convertir moneda

Añadir al carrito

Gastos de envío: EUR 3,34
A Estados Unidos de America
Destinos, gastos y plazos de envío

Existen otras copia(s) de este libro

Ver todos los resultados de su búsqueda