This historic book may have numerous typos, missing text or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1891. Not illustrated. Excerpt: ... THE VOLTAIC CIRCUIT. A. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIFFUSION OF ELECTRICITY. 1. A property of bodies, called into activity under certain circumstances, and which we call electricity, manifests itself in space, by the bodies which possess it, and which on that account are termed electric, either attracting or repelling one another. In order to investigate the changes which occur in the electric condition of a body A, in a perfectly definite manner, this body is each time brought, under similar circumstances, into contact with a second movable body of invariable electrical condition, called the Electroscope, and the force with which the electroscope is repelled or attracted by the body is determined. This force is termed the electroscopic force (potential) of the body A; and to distinguish whether it is attractive or repulsive, we place before the expression for its measure the sign + in the one case, and--in the other. The same body A may also serve to determine the electroscopic force in various parts of the same body. For this purpose we take the body A of very small dimensions, so that when we bring it into contact with the part to be tested of any third body, it may from its smallness be regarded as a substitute for this part; then its electroscopic force, measured in the way described, will, when it happens to be different at the various places, make known the relative difference with regard to electricity between these places. The intention of the preceding explanations is to give a simple and determinate signification to the expression "electroscopic force;" it does not come within the limits of our plan to take notice either of the greater or less practicability of this process, nor to compare inter se the various possible modes of proceeding for the det...
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