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5-Hydroxytryptamine and Related Indolealkylamines

Editorial: Springer
ISBN 10: 3642854699 / ISBN 13: 9783642854699
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Título: 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Related ...

Editorial: Springer

Encuadernación: Paperback

Condición del libro: New

Tipo de libro: Paperback

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Paperback. 928 pages. Dimensions: 9.6in. x 6.7in. x 1.9in.The study of biogenic amines, which from the beginning of modern pharma cology has always attracted the enthusiastic attention of research workers and has led to some of the most brilliant and illuminating experimental results in biology, has been unexpectedly extended in the last fifteen years. With the discovery of 5. hydroxytryptamine (enteramine, serotonin), in fact, the vast field of indole alkylamines has been opened up for research. In a decade of intensive and dedicated work, an immense amount of experi mental data has been collected, the significance of which, having rapidly overrun the limits of pharmacology, physiology, and biochemistry, has spread into all fields of biology and medicine, as previously occurred with choline esters, catechol amines and imidazolealkylamines. Thus, the study of indolealkylamines, espe cially that of their metabolism, has led not only to explanation of the mechanism of action, formerly largely obscure, of some important drugs, to clarification of the pathogenesis of some morbid syndromes and to a parallel flourishing of research on other biogenic amines, but also to surprising achievements in the field of therapeutics. The discovery of monoamineoxidase and dopadecarboxylase inhibitors, and of drugs which block the storage of biogenic amines in the body depots are among the most striking results of research on the indolealkylamines. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. N° de ref. de la librería 9783642854699

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Sinopsis: The study of biogenic amines, which from the beginning of modern pharma- cology has always attracted the enthusiastic attention of research workers and has led to some of the most brilliant and illuminating experimental results in biology, has been unexpectedly extended in the last fifteen years. 'With the discovery of 5. hydroxytryptamine (enteramine, serotonin), in fact, the vast field of indole- alkylamines has been opened up for research. In a decade of intensive and dedicated work, an immense amount of experi- mental data has been collected, the significance of which, having rapidly overrun the limits of pharmacology, physiology, and biochemistry, has spread into all fields of biology and medicine, as previously occurred with choline esters, catechol- amines and imidazolealkylamines. Thus, the study of indolealkylamines, espe- cially that of their metabolism, has led not only to explanation of the mechanism of action, formerly largely obscure, of some important drugs, to clarification of the pathogenesis of some morbid syndromes and to a parallel flourishing of research on other biogenic amines, but also to surprising achievements in the field of therapeutics. The discovery of monoamineoxidase and dopadecarboxylase inhibitors, and of drugs which block the storage of biogenic amines in the body depots are among the most striking results of research on the indolealkylamines.

Contenuti: 1. Histology of the enteroehromaffin cell system.- I. Introduction.- II. The elements of the enterochromaffin cell system.- III. Histochemical characteristics of 5-HT of diagnostic importance.- A. Fixability characteristic.- B. Colour reaction.- 1. Chromaffin reactio.- 2. Argentaffin reactions and argentophil.- 3. Diazo reaction.- 4. Pearse?s thyo-indoxyl reaction.- 5. Other reactions.- 6. Reactions which do not give the expected positive response.- 7. Various procedures.- C. Fluorescence as a diagnostic criterion.- D. Limits of histochemical diagnosability of 5-HT.- E. Histochemical data obtained by destructive extra-situm methods.- IV. The enterochromaffin cell syste.- A. Enterochromaffin cells.- 1. The typical enterochromaffin cell.- a) Specific granules.- ?) Histochemical characteristics.- ?) Histophysical characteristics.- ?) Ultrastructural data.- ?) Data obtained by homogenization and differential centrifugation.- b) Topographical distribution.- ?) Intestinal distribution.- ?) Extra-intestinal localization.- c) Taxonomical distribution.- 2. Brief notes on the argentophil pre-enterochromaffin cells.- 3. Embryology of the enterochromaffin cell.- a) Time of appearance of the enterochromaffin cell.- b) Experimental embryological data.- c) Origin of the enterochromaffin cell.- 4. Various functional conditions of the enterochromaffin cell.- B. Chromaffin cells of the posterior salivary glands of Octopoda.- C. Chromaffin cells in the hypobranchial gland of Muricidae.- D. Cutaneous poison glands in Amphibians.- E. Chromaffin cells in Calliactis parasitica.- F. Poison gland cells of some scorpions.- G. Mast cells in the rat and the mouse.- V. Localizations of phenolic and indolic substances which cannot be referred to 5-H.- VI. Localizations of 5-HT which cannot be histochemically demonstrated.- VII. Final considerations.- VIII. Technical appendix.- A. Fixations.- 1. Formalin fixation.- 2. Freezing drying.- 3. Fixation for electron-microscopy.- B. Principal reactions.- 1. Chromaffin reactions.- a) Fixation for chromaffin reaction.- b) Reaction on sections.- 2. Iodaffin reactions.- 3. Silver reactions.- a) Argentaffin reaction according to Masson-Hamperl.- b) Argentaffin reaction according to Masson.- c) Methenamine silver argentaffin reaction according to Gomori-Burtner.- d) Bodian?s argyrophil technique.- e) Gross-Schultze?s modification of Bielchowski?s argyrophil technique.- f) Feyrter?s adaptation of Gross-Schultze?s argyrophil technique to paraffin embedded sections.- 4. Schmorl?s reaction.- 5. Diazoreactions.- a) Diazoreaction with the diazotate of sulfanilic acid.- ?) In alkaline solution.- ?) In acid solution.- ?) In alkaline solution with subsequent strong acidification.- b) Diazoreaction with stabilized diazotates.- c) Coupled tetrazonium reaction according to Pearse.- d) Diazosafranin method according to Lillie, Burtner and Henson.- 6. Gibbs?s dichloroquinonechlorimide reaction.- 7. Pearse?s thioindoxyl reaction.- C. Estimation of the weighted index of granularity in the rat according to Ghiringhelli and Mira.- References.- 2: Chemical analysis of indolealkylamines and related compounds.- A. Isolation and fractionation from biological materia.- I. Extraction procedures.- 1. Acetone extraction.- 2. Butanol extraction.- 3. Other solvent extractions.- II. Chromatographic procedures.- 1. Adsorption chromatography.- 2. Ion exchange chromatography.- 3. Paper chromatography.- 4. Molecular sieving (gel filtration).- III. Paper electrophoresis.- B. Identification.- I. Ultraviolet absorbancy.- II. Fluorescence.- III. Colour reactions.- 1. Aldehyde reactions.- 2. Xanthydrol reaction.- 3. l-Nitroso-2-naphthol reaction.- 4. Diazo reactions.- IV. Countercurrent distribution.- V. Paper chromatography.- 1. Chromatography paper.- 2. Solvent systems.- 3. Location of spots.- 4. Rf values of indolealkylamines and related compounds.- 5. Quantitative paper chromatography.- VI. Thin layer chromatography.- VII. Gas chromatography.- VIII. Paper electrophoresis.- C. Quantitative determination of specific compounds.- I. Simple indoles.- 1. Tryptamine.- 2. Tryptophan.- 3. Indoleacetic acid.- II. 5-Hydroxyindoles.- 1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 2. 5-Hydroxytryptophan.- 3. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid.- References.- 3: Bioassay of indolealkylamines.- I. Extraction of 5-HT and related indolealkylamines from tissues and organic fluids.- II. Smooth muscle preparations used in the bioassay of indolealkylamines.- 1. Rat uterus.- a) Erspamer?s original method.- b) Gaddum?s technique.- 2. Rat fundus strip.- 3. Rat colon.- 4. Guinea-pig ileum.- 5. Isolated rabbit ear.- 6. Molluscan heart.- a) Venus inercenaria.- b) Helix (several species).- c) Spisula (Mactra) solida.- d) Anodonta cygnea.- e) Other molluscs.- 7. Miscellaneous preparations.- III. The relative potency of natural and synthetic indolealkylamines.- References.- 4: Occurrence of indolealkylamines in nature.- I. Introduction.- II. Vertebrates.- 1. Gastro-intestinal tract.- 2. Blood.- 3. Spleen.- 4. Mast cells.- 5. Other extracerebral tissues of mammals.- 6. Central and peripheral nervous system.- 7. Venom of reptiles.- 8. Amphibian skin.- 9. Fish tissues and venoms.- 10. Urine.- 11. Biological fluids and liquids other than urine.- III. Invertebrates.- IV. Plants.- References.- 5: Biosynthesis of indolealkylamines. Physiological release and transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine.- I. Introduction.- II. The hydroxylation of tryptophan.- III. The decarboxylation of 5-hydroxytryptophan.- 1. The identity of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase with dopa decarboxylease.- 2. Distribution of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase) within the body.- 3. Intracellular distribution of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase).- 4. Pyridoxal phosphate as a coenzyme of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase).- 5. Substrate specificity of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase).- 6. Inhibitors of 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase).- 7. Studies on 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase) in vivo.- 8. Mechanism of the decarboxylase reaction.- 9. Differences in 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase activity with age.- IV. Biosynthesis of melatonin.- V. Storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine.- VI. Turnover of 5-hydroxytryptamine.- References.- 6: Metabolism of indolealkylamines.- A. Introduction.- B. Enzymes acting on indolealkylamines.- I. Amine oxidases.- 1. The intracellular (and carbonyl-reagent-intensitive) amine oxidase.- a) Preparation of amine oxidase.- b) Intracellular localization of amine oxidase.- c) Distribution of amine oxidase.- d) Histochemistry of amine oxidase.- e) Indolealkylamines as substrates of amine oxidase.- ?) Tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine.- ?) N-substituded amines.- ?) Other indolealkylamines.- 2. Amine oxidases inhibited by carbonyl reagents.- 3. Microsomal deaminating enzymes.- 4. Microsomal demethylating enzymes.- II. Reactions of the phenolic hydroxyl groups.- 1. Hydroxyindole oxidases.- 2. Conjugases and dephosphorylase.- 3. Hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase.- III. Introduction of the phenolic hydroxyl groups.- IV. Introduction of N-methyl groups.- V. N-acetylase.- VI. Oxidative deamination and transamination involving 5-hydroxytryptophan.- 1. Amino-acid oxidases.- 2. Transaminases.- C. Metabolism of indolealkylamines.- I. Metabolites arising from deamination reactions.- 1. Metabolites of tryptamine and of its N-methylated derivatives.- 2. Metabolites of 5-hydroxytryptamine and related amines.- a) 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- b) Other 5-hydroxyindolealkylamines.- c) Derivatives of 5-hydroxyindoles.- 3. 4-Hydroxyindoles.- II. N-Acetylated metabolites.- III. Excretion of O-sulphates.- IV. Excretion of O-glucuronides.- V. Formation and excretion of phenolic compounds.- VI. Metabolism of melatonin.- D. Summary.- References.- 7: Peripheral physiological and pharmacological actions of indolealkylamines. By.- I. Acute toxicity of indolealkylamines.- II. Action on the systemic blood pressure.- III. Action on special vascular areas.- 1. Coronary vascular bed.- 2. Pulmonary vessels.- 3. Liver vessels.- 4. Spleen vessels.- 5. Vessels of the placenta.- 6. Musculo-cutaneous vessels.- 7. Vessels of the kidney.- 8. Brain vessels.- 9. Vessels of the retina.- 10. Vasa vasorum.- 11. Other vascular areas.- 12. Effect of local application of 5-HT.- 13. Action of 5-HT on isolated artery strips or rings.- 14. Conclusive remarks.- IV. Action on vascular permeability.- V. Action on capillary resistance.- a) Action of endogenous 5-HT on capillary resistance.- b) Action of exogenous 5-HT on capillary resistance.- c) Therapeutical trial of 5-HT in haemorrhagic syndromes ascribed to increased capillary fragility.- VI. Participation in the mechanism of haemostasis.- VII. Action on the heart.- 1. Heart in situ.- 2. Heart-lung preparation.- 3. Isolated heart.- 4. Isolated atrium.- 5. Papillary muscle.- 6. Strips of turtle and frog ventricle.- 7. Heart of molluscs.- 8. Heart of crustaceans.- VIII. Action on the circulation and the function of the kidney.- IX. Action on cellular permeability.- X. Action on extravascular smooth muscles.- 1. Gastro-intestinal tract.- 2. Extrahepatic biliary tract.- 3. Bronchial smooth muscle.- 4. Uterus.- 5. Urinary bladder.- 6. Ureter.- 7. Seminal vesicles.- 8. Spleen.- 9. Nictitating membrane.- 10. Iris smooth muscle.- 11. Chick amnion.- 12. Molluscan smooth muscle.- 13. Muscles of worms.- 14. Muscles of sea anemones.- XI. Action on respiration.- XII. Action on external secretions.- 1. Salivary secretion.- 2. Gastric secretion.- 3. Pancreatic and biliary secretions.- 4. Sweat secretion.- XIII. Metabolic effects. Action on enzymes.- 1. Action on carbohydrate metabolism.- 2. Action on oxygen consumption.- 3. Action on fat content in peripheral blood.- 4. Action on intestinal absorption of calcium and water.- 5. Miscellaneous metabolic effects.- 6. Inhibition of lipide peroxide formation in tissues.- 7. Action on cholinesterases.- 8. Action on ceruloplasmin.- 9. Action on phenol oxidases.- 10. Miscellaneous effects on enzymes.- XIV. Action on chromatophores.- 1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 2. Melatonin.- XV. Action on endocrine glands. Inter-endocrine correlations.- 1. Anterior hypophysis.- 2. Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract.- 3. Adrenals.- 4. Thyroid.- 5. Pineal gland.- 6. Testes.- 7. Ovary.- 8. Pancreas.- XVI. Protective action of indolealkylamines in experimental tissue injury.- 1. Radiation injury.- a) Reduction of radiation lethality.- b) Effects of 5-HT on response of tumours to in vivo irradiation.- c) Radioprotective action of 5-HT in vegetables.- d) Effect of 5-HT on irradiation-induced mutation rate of bacteria.- e) Mechanism of the radioprotective action of 5-HT.- 2. Liver cirrhosis.- 3. Cardiac and renal necroses.- XVII. Miscellaneous effects.- 1. Action on striated muscle.- 2. Action on the gill cilia of molluscs.- 3. Action on lymph flow.- 4. Action on intra-ocular pressure.- 5. Histamine-releasing activity.- 6. Action on phagocytosis.- 7. Action on tumour growth.- 8. Action on pigment formation.- 9. Action on bioluminescence.- 10. Action on growth of plant tissues.- 11. Action on food intake.- 12. Action on metamorphosis in amphibians.- 13. Inhibition of mitochondria swelling.- 14. Action on brain microsomes.- 15. Action on cerebro-spinal fluid pressure.- 16. Action on collagen.- 17. Teratogenic effect References of Chapter 7 see at the end of Chapter 8..- 8: Participation of 5-hydroxytryptamine in physiopathological processes.- I. Anaphylaxis.- 1. Mouse.- 2. Rat.- 3. Guinea-pig.- 4. Rabbit.- 5. Dog.- 6. Man.- 7. Chicken.- II. Anaphylactoid reaction.- 1. Egg-white, ovomucoid, dextran, polyvinylpyrrolidone, compoud 48/80.- 2. Formalin.- III. Other immunological reactions.- 1. Rabbit.- 2. Guinea-pig.- 3. Rat.- 4. Mouse.- IV. Response to bacterial toxins.- V. Inflammatory processes.- 1. Bacterial inflammation.- 2. Turpentine inflammation.- 3. Thermal injury.- 4. Ultraviolet irradiation.- 5. X-ray irradiation.- 6. Response to snake venoms.- VI. Formation of granulation tissue and healing of wounds.- VII. Reaction to stress.- VIII. Miscellaneous experimental pathological processes.- 1. Haemorrhagic shock.- 2. Transfusional reaction.- 3. Complications in extracorporeal circulation.- 4. Pulmonary thromboembolism.- 5. Ozone-induced pulmonary oedema.- 6. Decompression sickness.- 7. Reaction to air ions and microparticle inhalation.- 8. Dumping-syndrome.- 9. Calciphylactic muscular distrophy.- 10. Osteolathyrism.- 11. Reactive hyperaemia.- 12. Poisoning produced by putrefied fish.- References.- 9: Pharmacological actions of indolealkylamines and precursor aminoacids on the central nervous system.- A. Effects on behaviour.- I. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 1. Mouse.- 2. Rat.- 3. Rabbit.- 4. Cat.- 5. Dog.- 6. Pigeon.- 7. Fish.- 8. Frog.- II. 5-Hydroxytryptophan.- 1. Mouse and rat.- 2. Rabbit.- 3. Cat.- 4. Dog.- 5. Pigeon.- III. Bufotenine.- 1. Rat.- 2. Dog.- 3. Monkey.- IV. Psilocybin.- 1. Mouse.- 2. Rabbit.- 3. Monkey.- 4. Spider.- V. Tryptamine and tryptophan.- VI. Other indolealkylamines.- B. Passage of 5-HT through the blood-brain barrier.- C. Effects on the body temperature.- D. Interferences with central acting drugs.- I. Hypnotics and anaesthetics.- 1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 2. 5-Hydroxytryptophan.- 3. Bufotenine and psilocybin.- 4. Tryptamine and tryptophan.- II. Convulsants.- III. Other central acting drugs.- E. Drugs and treatments affecting the brain 5-HT content.- I. Electroshock and convulsants.- II. Anticonvulsant drugs.- III. Barbiturates and other central depressant drugs.- IV. Cortisone.- V. Central nervous system lesions.- F. Effects on the electroencephalogram.- I. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 1. Rabbit.- 2. Cat.- II. 5-Hydroxytryptophan.- 1. Rabbit.- 2. Cat.- III. Other indolealkylamines and precursor aminoacids.- G. Effects on action potentials evoked in cerebral cortex and in subcortical structures.- I. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 1. Responses of the cerebral cortex to direct electrical or chemical stimulation.- 2. Cortical and subcortical responses evoked by afferent impulses.- a) Transcallosal stimulation.- b) Sensory nerves and sense organs stimulation.- II. 5-Hydroxytryptophan.- III. Other indolealkylamines.- H. Effects on spinal reflexes.- I. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- II. Psilocybin and psilocin.- III. Bufotenine.- IV. Other indolealkylamines.- I. Effects on single cellular elements.- I. Single neurones.- II. Brain cells cultured ?in vitro?.- J. Effects on sympathetic ganglia.- I. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- II. Other indolealkylamines.- K. Effects on cutaneous sensory endings.- L. Effects on the central nervous system of lower animals.- References.- 10: Drugs which antagonize 5-hydroxytryptamine and related indolealkylamines.- A. Introduction.- B. Reviews of antagonists of 5-HT.- C. General description of 5-HT antagonists.- 1. Relations of 5-HT and its antagonists to the ?specific? tissue receptors.- 2. Relations of 5-HT and its antagonists to other biological sites reacting with 5-HT..- 3. Relations of indolealkylamines other than 5-HT to the 5-HT receptors.- D. Methods.- 1. Critical considerations of methods for assessing blocking action to 5-HT and related indolealkylamines.- 2. Methods for testing anti-5-HT action (Tables).- E. Classes of anti-5-HT drugs (Tables).- F. Neurotropic antagonists of 5-HT.- G. Actions of antagonists of 5-HT on the CNS.- 1. Summary of the actions of antagonists on the CNS effects produced by 5-HT.- 2. Influence of antagonists on CNS effects produced by 5-HT precursors and releasing agents.- H. Effects on the CNS of indolealkylamines related to 5-HT.- I. Action of 5-HT antagonists in inflammatory and anaphylactic processes.- K. Clinical applications of antagonists of 5-HT.- L. Biological data of the available antagonists of 5-HT (Tables).- M. Conclusions.- References.- 11: Drugs which block the storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine and related amines..- I. Introduction.-...

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